My original education and training was in psychoanalytic ego psychology, broadly understood and I have a deep appreciation for the many factors influencing us "behind the scenes" of our conscious awareness. I sought training in EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in 2005 to help my clients more effectively address unfinished business from their pasts. That has led to a greater recognition of the part dissociative processes play in our personalities and, consequently, I have pursued further training and professional development in using a variety of ego state approaches to therapy. Central among those is the DNMS (Developmental Needs Meeting Strategy), an approach especially designed to help heal attachment wounds from early childhood. My work emphasizes sensitivity to the wounded parts of our personality and to the strategies we developed over time to protect ourselves. Greater understanding of what shaped and motivates these parts of our personality are often keys to understanding relational conflicts.